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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 The Cold War Era
TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED
Q1. Which among the following statements about the Cold War is wrong?
(а) It was a competition between the US and Soviet Union and their respective allies.
(b) It was an ideological war between the superpowers.
(c) It triggered off an arms race.
(d) The US and USSR were engaged in direct wars.
Answer: (d) The US and USSR were engaged in direct wars.
Q2. Which among the following statements does not reflect the objectives of NAM?
(a) Enabling newly decolonised countries to pursue independent policies.
(b) No to joining any military alliances.
(c) Following a policy of neutrality on global issues.
(d) Focus on elimination of global economic inequalities.
Answer: (c) Following a policy of neutrality on global issues.
Q3. Mark correct or wrong against each of
the following statements that describe the features ol Tliitary alliances formed by the superpowers.
(a) Member countries of the alliance are to provide bases in their respective lands for superpowers.
(b) Member countries to support the superpower both in terms of ideology and military strategy.
(c) When a nation attacks any member country, it is considered as an attack on all the member countries.
(d) Superpowers assist all the member countries to develop their own nuclear weapons.
Answer: (a) True (6) True (c) True (d) False
Q4. Here is a list of countries. Write against each of these blocs they belonged to during the Cold War.
(a) Poland—Eastern Alliance (Warsaw Pact)
(b) France—Western Alliance (NATO)
(c) Japan—Western Alliance (NATO)
(e) North Korea—Eastern Alliance (Warsaw Pact)
(f) Sri Lanka—NAM
Answer: (a) Poland—Eastern Alliance (Warsaw Pact)
Q5. The Cold War produced an arms race as well as arms control. What were the reasons for both these developments?
Answer: The Cold War did not eliminate rivalries between the two alliances, mutual suspicions led them to arm themselves to the teeth and to constantly prepare for war. Huge stocks of arms were considered necessary to prevent wars from taking place. This was known as arms race.
Cold war also led to several shooting wars such as Korean Crisis, Berlin Crisis, Congo Crisis and several others. The two sides understood that war might occur in spite of restraint. As both powers have nuclear weapons, there will be vast devastation all over the world and left no single side as the winner. Therefore, the US and USSR decided to collaborate in limiting or eliminating certain kinds of nuclear and non-nuclear weapons. A stable balance of weapons, they decided, could be maintained through ‘arms control’.
Q6. Why did the superpowers have military alliances with smaller countries? Give three reasons.
Answer: Superpowers had military alliances with smaller states who were helpful for them in gaining access to:
A. Vital resources as oil and minerals.
B. Territory from where the superpowers could launch their weapons and troops.
C. Locations from where they could spy on each other.
D. Economic support to pay their military expenses.
Q7. Sometimes it is said that the Cold War was a simple struggle for power and that ideology had nothing to do with it. Do you agree with this? Give one example to support your position.
Answer: No, I do not agree with the statement that the Cold War was a simple struggle for power and that ideology had nothing to do with it.
• The Cold War was not simply a matter of power rivalries, of military alliances, and of the balance of power. These were accompanied by a real ideological conflict as well,• The western alliance, headed by the US, represented the ideology of liberal democracy and capitalism while
the eastern alliance, headed by the Soviet Union, was committed to the ideology of socialism and communism.
Thus, both powers trying to prove that their ideas are better than the other and most appropriate way of organising political, economic, and social life all over the world.
Q8. What was India’s foreign policy towards the USandUSSR during the Cold War era? Do you think that this policy helped India’s interests?
Answer: India’s foreign policy towards the US and USSR was two fold:
A. Took particular care in staging away from the two alliances.
B. Raised voice against the newly decolonised countries becoming part of these alliances.
C. Moreover, India tried to reduce the differences and rivalries between these alliances from escalating into a full scale war.
Yes, this policy served India’s interests also:
A. Non-alignment allowed India to take international decisions that served India’s interests rather than interests of superpowers and its allies.
B. India maintained a balance between two superpowers as if India felt ignored by one superpower it could tilt towards other superpowers.
C. Neither the alliance could take India for granted.
Q9. NAM was considered a ‘third option’ by Third World countries. How did this option benefit their growth during the peak of the Cold War?
Answer:The Cold War tended to divide the world into two rival alliances. It was in this context that nonalignment offered the newly decolonised countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America a third option—not to join either alliance.
The idea of a New International Economic Order (NIEO) benefited the newly decolonised countries.
• It gives the Least Developed Countries (LDC) to control over their natural resources exploited by the developed Western countries,
• It obtains access to Western markets so that the LDCs could sell their products and, therefore, make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries,
• It reduces the cost of technology from the Western countries
• It also provides the LDCs with a greater role in international economic institutions.
Thus, NAM as ‘third option’ by Third World countries benefited their growth during the peak of the Cold War.
Q10. What do you th nk about the statement that NAM has bdcoPie irrelevant today? Give reasons to support your opinion.
What is the relevance of non-aligned movement after the end of Cold War?
Answer: By the mid 1970s, NAM had become an economic pressure group and by late 1980s, the NIEO initiative had faded due to stiff competition from developed countries who acted as a united group while non-aligned countries struggled to maintain their unity in face of this opposition. Non-alignment both as an international movement and as a core of India’s foreign policy lost some of its earlier relevance. Though non-alignment contained some core values and enduring ideas. It was based on a recognition that decolonised states shared a historical affiliation and can become powerful force if they come together, as very small and poor countries need not to become follower of any big powers instead they could persue an independent foreign policy also.
In nutshell, it can be concluded that NAM has not lost its relevance. It has stood test of adverse circumstances. It has served an important purpose of protecting and preserving interests of third world countries.
MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED
Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]
Q1. Why was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation also called Western Alliance?
Answer: The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation was an association of twelve states. All these states belonged to western Europe. Therefore, this association was also called Western Alliance.
Q2. Name the two superpowers responsible for Cold War. When did the world become unipolar?
Answer: The US and USSR were responsible for Cold War. The world became unipolar in 1991 after disintegration of USSR.
Q3. What does USSR stand for?
Answer: Union of Soviet Socialist Republic.
Q4. When did NATO and WARSAW PACT come into existence?
Answer: NATO—April 1949
Q5. Mention the period of first and second World Wars.
Answer: First World War: 1914-1918
Second World 1939-1945
Q6. What is meant b; .old War?
Answer: Cold War is a state of extreme unfriendliness existing between two superpowers especially with opposing political system which expresses itself not through fighting but through political pressures and threats.
Q7. “ Non-alignment does not imply neutrality or equidistance.” What does this statement mean?
Answer: Neutrality refers to a policy of staying out of war and not to help end a war. Non-aligned states including India worked to prevent wars and rivalries between others.
Q8. What was deterrence relationship between superpowers?
Answer: Deterrence relationship refers that both sides have the capacity to retaliate against an attack and to cause so much destruction that neither can afford to initiate war.
Q9. How did superpowers maintain arms- control?
Answer: Superpowers maintained arms control by signing significant agreements within a decade as Limited Test Ban Treaty, Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, Anti- Ballistic Missile Treaty and hold several rounds of arms limitation talks.
Q10. What do you understand by Least Developed Countries?
Answer: Majority of NAM members were categorised as Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to be more developed economically and to lift their people out of poverty.
Q11. What was the difference in the ideology of Western Alliances and that of Eastern Alliances?
Answer: The Western Alliance headed by the US represented ideology of liberal democracy and capitalism while the eastern alliance headed by Soviet Union committed to socialism and communism.
Q12. What was India’s policy of Non¬alignment?
Answer: India’s policy of Non-alignment was not a policy of‘fleeing away’ instead India was in favour of actively intervening in world affairs to soften Cold War rivalries and prevented differences from escalating into a full scale war.
Q13. Why did India not join either of the two camps during the Cold War?
Answer: India did not join either of the two camps during the Cold War because India played an active role in mediating between the two rival alliances for the sake of peace and stability. Their strength was based on unity of NAM members and their resolve to remain non-aligned despite the attempts and made by two superpowers to bring them into their alliances.
Q14. How were the military alliances beneficial to smaller nations during the Cold War?
Answer: Smaller nations got the promise of protection, weapons and economic aid against their local and regional rivals. A state was supposed to remain tied to its protective superpowers to unite influence of other superpower and its allies.
Q15. Name any two foreign leaders alongwith the countries they belonged to, who are recognised as the founders of NAM.
Answer: Yugoslavia’s Josip Broz Tito; Egypt’s leader Gamal Abdel Nasser.
Q16. What was Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT)?
Answer: It was arms control treaty between superpowers. It banned nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water. It was signed by the US, UK and USSR in Moscow on 5 August, 1963. It entered into force on 10 October, 1963.
Q17. When and where the first NAM Summit was held?
Answer: The first NAM Summit was held in Belgrade in 1961 and it was attended by 25 member states.
Very Short Answer Type Questions [2 Marks]
Q1. What is meant by the Cuba Missile Crisis?
Answer: Cuba was an ally of the Soviet Union and received both diplomatic and financial aid from it. In 1962, Soviet Union placed nuclear missiles in Cuba to convert it into a Russian base. This move fired the US. It ordered American warships to intercept any Soviet ships heading to Cuba as a way of warning the USSR of its seriousness. A clash seemed imminent in what came to be known as the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Q2. What was the main objective of New International Economic Order?
Answer: The main objective of NSEO was to develop more to Least (Economic)
Developed countries of NAM and to lift them out of poverty by their sustainable development.
Q3. Mention two military features of the Cold War.
Answer: 1. Cold War divided the world into two divisions namely Western and Eastern alliances as well as SEATO and CENTO.
- Mad arms race had taken to manu-facture atom-bomb and nuclear weapons by Super Powers of the world.
Q4. Explain Eastern and Western alliance during Cold war.
Answer: 1. Cold War gave birth to Eastern Alliance known as Warsaw Pact headed by Soviet Union in 1955 with the principal function to counter NATO’s forces.
- Cold War created Western Alliance known as NATO in April 1949 by association of twelve states. Its policy was that an armed attack on any one of them would be regarded as an attack on all of them and everybody would be obliged to help each other.
Q5. When did NATO come into existence? How many states joined it?
Answer: NATO came into existence in April 1949 and twelve sca+ joined it.
Q6. Name any two t,rms control treaties signed between two superpowers in 1960s.
Answer: 1. Limited Test Ban Treaty (5 August, 1963)
- Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (1 July, 1960)
Q7. Name two leaders who played crucial role in Cuban Missile Crisis.
Answer: 1. Nikita Khrushchev—Leader of Soviet Union
- John F. Kennedy—US President
Q8. Explain any four objectives on Non- aligned Movement.
Answer: 1. NAM aimed at an end of colonisation and freedom to all nations.
- NAM promoted and maintained international peace and security.
- NAM aimed at removal of disparity among developed, poor and very small countries.
- NAM aimed at promotion of New International Economic Order to encourage cooperation among nations.
Q9. Mention any four important events which took place during Cuban Missile Crisis.
Answer: 1. In 1962, USSR installed Missiles in Cuba with intention to convert it into Russian base.
- America became aware of it and as a warning ordered American warship to intercept Soviet ships moving to Cuba.
- The US was feared of developing nuclear weapons on part of the USSR to challenge supremacy of the US.
- The Cuban Crisis divided the world into two power blocs to expand their own spheres of influence in the world.
Q10. Who was the key leader of NAM who tried to reduce the Cold War conflicts?
Answer: Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru was the key leader of NAM who played a crucial role in mediating between two Koreas. Nehru appealed for reduction of Cold War conflicts and the establishment of world peace and security through co-operative disarmament.
Q11. Why were most of the countries categorised as Least Developed Countries?
Answer:1. The economic development of these countries was very low.
- They were dependent on richer countries for their sustainable development.
- Their natural resources were being exploited by developed countries.
- They could not participate in international economic institutions and they had a little say, if participated.
Short Answer Type Questions [4 Marks]
Q1. Why did India distance itself from the two camps led by the U.S. and the Soviet Union? Explain.
Answer: The end of the Second World War was the beginning of the Cold War between the two superpowers of the world, namely the US and the USSR. These two superpowers were keen on expanding their spheres of influence in different parts of the world. Most countries of western Europe sided with the US and those of eastern Europe joined the USSR. But India kept a distance from these superpowers. It means, it became a member of the non-alignment-movement by not joining either alliance. Non-alignment was not a noble international cause which had little to do with India’s real interests. A non-aligned posture also served India’s interests very directly, in at least two ways.
(t) Non-alignment allowed India to take international decisions and stances that served its interests rather than the interests of the superpowers and their allies. .
(ii) India was often able to balance one superpower against the other. If India felt ignored or unduly pressurised by one superpower, it could tilt towards the other. Neither alliance system could take India for granted or bully it.
Q2. “The drop of bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the US was a political game.” Justify the statement.
Answer: The Second World War ended when the United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 causing Japan to surrender. Moreover, this action was criticised on the ground that the US knew that Japan was about to surrender and dropping of bombs was not necessary. US action was intended to stop Soviet Union from making military and political gains in Asia and elsewhere and to show that the US was supreme.
Q3. Explain the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Answer: In 1962, Soviet Union decided to convert Cuba into a Russian base as it provided USSR diplomatic and financial aid both. Hence, Soviet Union placed nuclear missiles in Cuba. The US became aware of it and ordered American warships to intercept to Soviet Union to remove missiles to avoid full scale nuclear war. A clash seemed imminent what came to be known as Cuban Missile Crisis.
Q4. Name any two founders of Non-aligned Movement. The first NAM summit was the culmination of which three factors?
Answer: Two founders of Non-aligned Movement were:
- Indonesia’s Sukarno and
- Ghana’s Kwame Nkrumah
The first NAM was held in Belgrade in 1961. This was the culmination of following three factors:
- Cooperation among member countries.
- Growing cold war tensions and its widening arenas.
- The dramatic entry of many new decolonised African countries into international arena.
Q5. What is the rationale of Non-aligned movement after the end of Cold War?
Whmh core values keep non-alignment relevant even after Cold War has ended?
Answer: Non-aligned Movement was based on a recognition that decolonised states shared a historical affiliation and can become powerful force if they come together. It meant that very small and poor countries need not become followers of any big power, instead they could persue an independent foreign policy also. It was based on a resolve to democratise the international system to redress existing inequities also.
Q6. “ Non-alignment posture was in the interest of India”. How?
Answer: Non-alignment posture was in the interest of India because:
- Non-alignment allowed India to take international decisions to serve her own interests.
- India maintained a balance between two superpowers as if India felt ignored by one. India would tilt towards other superpower.
Q7. How did deterrence relationship prevented war between two superpowers?
Answer: 1. Even if one of them tries to attack and disable the nuclear weapons of its rivals, the other would still be left with enough nuclear weapons to inflict unacceptable destruction.
- Both sides have capacity to retaliate against an attack and to cause so much destruction that neither can afford to initiate war.
- Both superpowers were expected to behave more rationally and in responsible manner in the sense that they understood the risks in fighting wars which may create a massive destruction.
Passage Based Questions [5 Marks]
Q1. Read carefully the passage given below and answer the following questions:
The Cold War was not simply a matter of power rivalries, military alliances and of balance of power. These were accompanied by a real ideological conflict as well, a difference over- the best and most appropriate way of organising political, economic and social life all over the world.
Q.(i. Why is a war like situation called Cold War?
Answer: The Cold War referred to the competition, the tensions and a series of confrontations between the US and Soviet Union. It never escalated into a hot war, i.e. a full-scale war between these two powers.
Q.(ii. Identify one military pact each signed by each of the two super powers to balance the power rivalries.
Answer: The US and USSR decided to collaborate in limiting or eliminating certain kinds of nuclear and non-nuclear weapons. A stable balance of weapon, they decided, could be maintained through ‘arms control’. Starting in the 1960s, the two sides signed significant agreements, namely, Limited Test Ban Treaty and Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
Q.(iii. Differentiate between the ideologies represented by the rival blocs.
Answer: The Western alliance, headed by the US, represented the ideology of liberal democracy and capitalism while the eastern alliance, headed by the Soviet Union, was committed to the ideology of socialism and communism.
Q2. Read the passage (NCERT Textbook, pages 2-3) given below carefully and answer the questions:
In April 1961… the Soviet Union were worried that the United States of America would invade communist ruled Cuba and overthrow the Cuban President Fidel Castro…. Nikita Khrushchev, the leader of Soviet Union, decided to convert Cuba into a Russian base. In 1962, placed nuclear missiles… Three weeks after the Soviet Union had placed the nuclear weapons in Cuba, the Americans became aware of it. They became reluctant to do anything that might lead to full scale war between the two countries… A clash seemed imminent in what came to be known as “Cuban Missile Crisis”. The prospects of this clash made the whole world nervous.
Q.(i. Why was the Soviet Union worried about America invading Cuba?
Answer: The Soviet Union was worried about America invading Cuba that the US world overthrew Cuban President Fidel Castro to capture power in Cuba.
Q.(ii. In response to the action taken by America, what did Nikita Khrushchev do?
Answer: They became reluctant to do anything that might lead to to full scale war between the two countries.
Q.(iii. Why were the two superpowers reluctant to start nuclear war?
Answer: The two superpowers became reluctant because both of them knew that it might lead only a massive destruction and will not justify any gain for them.
Q3. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
The Western alliance was formalised into an organisation, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), which came into existence in April 1949. It was an association of twelve states which declared that armed attack on any one of them would be regarded as an attack on all of them. Each of these status would be obliged to help each other. The eastern alliance known as the Warsaw Pact was led by Soviet Union, created in 1955 and its principal function was to counter NATO’s forces in Europe.
Q.(i. What does NATO stand for?
Answer: NATO stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organisation.
Q.(ii. What was NATO’s policy?
Answer: NATO was an association of twelve states which declared that armed attack on any one of them would be regarded as an attack on all of them and each of them would be obliged to help each other.
Q.(iii. What was Warsaw Pact?
Answer: Warsaw Pact was eastern alliance, led by Soviet Union, created in 1955.
Q.(iv. Mention the main function of Warsaw Pact.
Answer Main function of Warsaw Pact was to counter NATO’s forces in Europe.
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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science : Contemporary World Politics
- Chapter 1 The Cold War Era NCERT Solutions
- Chapter 2 The End of Bipolarity NCERT Solutions
- Chapter 3 US Hegemony in World Politics NCERT Solutions
- Chapter 4 Alternative Centres of Power NCERT Solutions
- Chapter 5 Contemporary South Asia NCERT Solutions
- Chapter 6 International Organisations NCERT Solutions
- Chapter 7 Security in the Contemporary World NCERT Solutions
- Chapter 8 Environment and Natural Resources NCERT Solutions
- Chapter 9 Globalisation NCERT Solutions
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science : Politics In India Since Independence
- Chapter 1 Challenges of Nation Building NCERT Solutions
- Chapter 2 Era of One Party Dominance NCERT Solutions
- Chapter 3 Politics of Planned Development NCERT Solutions
- Chapter 4 India’s External Relations NCERT Solutions
- Chapter 5 Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System NCERT Solutions
- Chapter 6 The Crisis of Democratic Order NCERT Solutions
- Chapter 7 Rise of Popular Movements NCERT Solutions
- Chapter 8 Regional Aspirations NCERT Solutions
- Chapter 9 Recent Developments in Indian Politics NCERT Solutions