NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 6 International Organisations

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 6 International Organisations

TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

Q1. Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements about the veto power:
(a) Only the permanent members of the Security Council possess the veto power.

Answer:(a) Correct

(b) It’s a kind of negative power.

Answer:(b) Correct

(c) The Secretary General uses this power when not satisfied with any decision.

Answer:(c) Wrong

(d) One veto can stall a Security Council resolution.

Answer:(d) Correct

Q2. Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements about the way the UN functions:

(a) All security and peace related issues are dealt within the Security Council.

Answer:(a) Correct

(b) Humanitarian policies are implemented by the main organs and specialised agencies spread across the globe.

Answer:(b) Wrong

(c) Having consensus among five permanent members on security issues is vital for its implementation.

Answer:(c) Correct

(d) The members of the General Assembly are automatically the members of all other principal organs and specialised agencies of the UN.

Answer:(d) Wrong

Q3. Which among the following would give more weightage to India’s proposal for permanent membership in the Security Council?

(a) Nuclear capability
(b) It has been a member of the UN since its inception.
(c) It is located in Asia.
(d) India’s growing economic power and stable political system.

Answer: (d) India’s growing economic power and stable political system.

Q4. The UN agency concerned with the safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology is:

(a) The UN Committee on Disarmament
(b) International Atomic Energy Agency
(c) UN International Safeguard Committee
(d) None of the above.

Answer: (b) International Atomic Energy Agency

Q5. WTO is serving as the successor to which of the following organisations:

(a) General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs
(b) General Arrangement on Trade and Tariffs
(c) World Health Organisation
(d) UN Development Programme

Answer: (a) General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs

Q6. Fill in the blanks:

(a) The prime objective of UN is

Answer:(a) to maintain peace and security

(b) The highest functionary of the UN is called

Answer:(b) Secretariat

(c) The UN Security Council has permanent and non permanent members.

Answer:(c) 5, 10

(d) is the present UN Secretary General.

Answer:(d) Ban-ki-Moon

Q7. Match the principal organs and agencies of the UN with their functions:TABLE

A B
1. Economic and Social Council(a) Oversees the global financial system.
2.International Court of Justice(b) Reservation of international peace and security.
3.International Atomic Energy Agency(c) Looks into the economic and social welfare of the member countries.
4.Security Council(d) Safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology.
5.UN High Commission for Refugees(e) Resolves disputes between and among member countries.
6.World Trade Organisation(f) Provides shelter and medical help during emergencies.
7.International Monetary Fund(g) Debates and discusses global issues.
8.General Assembly(h) Administration and coordination of UN affairs.
9.World Health Organisation(i) Providing good health for all.
10.Secretariat(j) Facilitates free trade among member countries.

Answer:

A B
1. Economic and Social Council(c) Looks into the economic and social welfare of the member countries.
2.International Court of Justice(e) Resolves disputes between and among member countries.
3.International Atomic Energy Agency(d) Safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology.
4.Security Council(b) Reservation of international peace and security.
5.UN High Commission for Refugees(f) Provides shelter and medical help during emergencies.
6.World Trade Organisation(j) Facilitates free trade among member countries.
7.International Monetary Fund(a) Oversees the global financial system.
8.General Assembly(g) Debates and discusses global issues.
9.World Health Organisation(i) Providing good health for all.
10.Secretariat(h) Administration and coordination of UN affairs.

Q8. What are the functions of Security Council?

Answer:Its main function is to maintain international peace and security in the world. Its other functions are as:
• To investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction.
• To recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement.
• To formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments.
• To determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken.
• To call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression.
• To take military action against an aggressor.
• To recommend the admission of new Members.
• To exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in “strategic areas”.
• To recommend to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and, together with the Assembly, to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.

Q9. As a citizen of India, how would you support India’s candidature for the permanent membership of Security Council? Justify your proposal.

Answer: As a citizen of India, we may support India’s candidature for the permanent membership of Security Council in the following manner:

  1. India is the most populous country in the world with one-fifth of world population.
  2. India is world’s largest democracy.
  3. India’s economic emergence on the World Stage.
  4. India is a regular financial contributor to the UN.
  5. India signifies a growing importance in world affairs in conduct of its foreign policy.
  6. India participated in all the initiatives of the UN.

Q10. Critically evaluate the difficulties involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the UN.

Answer:There are various difficulties involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the UN:
• How big an economic and military power may qualify to become UNSC membership?
• What level of budget contribution should be enabled?
• No guarantee to be effective as Council Member in respect for democracy and human rights.
• Why should the issue of equitable representation decided by geography? Why not by levels of economic development?
• Why not to give more seats to members of developing world?

Q11. Though the UN has failed in preventing wars and related miseries, nations prefer its continuation. What makes the UN an indispensable organisation?

Answer: 1. Interdependence and globalisation is not possible without the international organisations such as the UN.

  1. To enforce cooperation on the issues of poverty, unemployment, environmental degradation, crime rate etc.
  2. To provide financial assistance to developing countries to stabilise economy all over the world,, the UN and its specialised agencies are always required.
  3. The UN works as a forum to solve any international dispute among nations and sort out the best possible way.
  4. Hence, though the UN has failed in preventing related wars and miseries, despite the nations require its continuation due to above mentioned reasons to promote international peace and understanding.

Q12. “Reforming the UN means restructuring of the Security Council”. Do you agree with this statement? Give arguments for or against this position.

Answer:Yes, we do agree with the statement because Security Council plays a crucial role in functioning of the UN. It represents the and five permanent members and their veto power provide them valuable outstanding position. Permanent members category is mainly from developed economy which should be balanced by enhancing representation from developing countries. Other way through which Security Council to make the UN more effective is inclusion of member states should be judged on the basis of contribution to peace keeping initiatives.


MORE QUESTIONS

Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]

Q1. Who is present Secretary General of the United Nations?

Answer: Ban-Ki-Moon from South Korea.

Q2. Name any two member states of the European Union who are permanent members of the UN Security Council.

Answer: Britain and France

Q3. What is the main objective of the United Nations?

Answer: To prevent international conflict and to facilitate cooperation among states.

Q4. Mention any two agencies of the United Nations.

Answer: 1. International Monetary Fund.

  1. World Health Organisation.
    Ans. Amnesty International is an NGO, which was established to campaign for protection of human rights all over the world. Its objective is to promote respect for all the human beings and human rights in the universal declaration of Human Rights.

Q5. How many member countries have got veto power in the UN Security Council and why?

Answer: Five permanent member countries i.e France, Russia, UK, the US, China got veto power because they have been emerged as industrialised developed countries to stall any decision.

Q6. Mention any two advantages of having international organisation in the world?

Answer: 1. To help countries in the matters of conflicts and differences.

  1. To make the countries cooperate and create better living conditions for humanity.

Q7. State any two objectives of the UN.

Answer: 1. To maintain international peace and security.

  1. To facilitate cooperation among member countries by avoiding conflicts and war.

Q8. State any two objectives of Human Rights watch.

Answer: 1. To draw global media’s attention to human rights abuses.

  1. To help in building international coalitions like the campaigns to ban land-mines, to stop the use of child soldier, and to establish international criminal court.

Q9. What reforms in the UN are required?

Answer: Following reforms are required in the UN:

  1. Reform of the organisation’s structures and processes.
  2. A review of the issues that fall within the jurisdiction of the organisation.
  3. Reforms are required due to certain limitations to the UN i.e. only five members on permanent basis in the UN Security Council and their veto power, dominance of few powerful countries etc.

Q10. Discuss the resolution adopted by General Assembly in 1992 over the reform of the UN Security Council.

Answer: In 1992, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution, which reflected three main complaints:

  1. The UN Security Council no longer represents contemporary political realities.
  2. Its decisions reflect only western values and interests and are dominated by a few7 powers.
  3. It lacks equitable representation. Considering above mentioned demands for restructuring of the UN on 01 January 1997, the UN Secretary General Kofi Annan initiated an enquiry into how the UN should be reformed.

Q11. What is the veto power? Should it be modified?

Answer: The veto power is a negative vote to stall any decision by five permanent members of UN Security Council. Sometimes the moves have been made to modify this but it is presumed to have a danger to lose interest by great powers, and without their support and involvement such organisation would become ineffective.


Short Answer Type Questions [4 Marks]

Q1. Critically evaluate the difficulties involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the U.N.

Answer: In 1992, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution which reflected three main complaints—
• The Security Council no longer represents contemporary political realities.
• Its decisions reflect only Western values and interests and are dominated by a few powers.
• It lacks equitable representation. In view of these growing demands for the restructuring of the UN, on 1 January, 1997, the UN Secretary General Kofi Annan initiated an inquiry into how the UN should be reformed. How for instance, should new Security Council members be chosen?

  1. India’s nuclear weapon capabilities
  2. If India is included, some emerging powers (Brazil, Germany, Japan, South Africa) will also be accommodated.
  3. France and the US advocate that Africa and South America must be represented for they do not have any representation in the present structure.

Q2. What steps should be taken to make the UN more relevant in the changing context?

Answer: (a) Creation of Peace Building Commission.
(b) Acceptance of responsibility of international community in case of failures of national governments to protect their own citizens from atrocities.
(c) Condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.
(d) An agreement to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.


Passage Based Questions [5 Marks]

Q1. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions:
Countries have conflicteand differences with each other. That does not necessarily mean they must go to war to deal with their antagonisms. They can instead discuss contentious issues and find peaceful solutions, indeed, even though this is rarely noticed most conflicts and differences are resolved without going to war. The role of an international organisation is not a super-state with authority over its members. It is created by and responds to states. It comes into being when states agree to its creation. Once created, it can help member states resolve their problems peacefully.

Questions

  1. Is this necessary to engage into wars during conflicts among countries?

Answer:1. No, instead countries can discuss contentious issues to find peaceful solutions.

  1. Is an international organisation a super state?

Answer:2. No, it is created by and responds to states and comes into being when study agrees to its creation.

  1. What is the significance of international organisation?

Answer: To help member states to resolve problems peacefully without going to war.

Q2. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions:
By 2006, the UN had 192 member states. These included almost all independent states. In the UN General Assembly, all members have one vote each. In the UN Security Council, there are five permanent members. These are the US, UK, Russia, France, China. These states were selected as permanent members as they were most powerful immediately after the Second World War and because they constituted the victors in the war.

Questions

  1. How many member states were there in the UN 2006?

Answer:1. There were 192 member states in the UN by 2006.

  1. Name five permanent members of UN Security Council.

Answer:2. The UK, US, China, Russia and France are the permanent members.

  1. Why these states were selected as permanent?

Answer:3. Because they were most powerful immediately after the Second World War and constituted the victors in the war.


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