NCERT Solutions For Class 12 History Chapter 15 Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New Era

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NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

Q1. What were the ideals expressed in the Objectives Resolution?

Answer: Jawahar Lai Nehru presented the Objectives Resolution in the Constituent Assembly on 13 December, 1946. It gave a brief account of the ideals and objectives of the Constitution. These are following:

i)India was declared an independent sovereign republic.

ii)Justice, equality and fraternity were assured to all the citizens of India.

iii)Adequate safeguards were provided to minorities. It also referred to the well-being of the backward and depressed classes.

iv)It was made an objective that India would combine the liberal ideas of democracy with the socialist idea of economic justice.

v)India would adopt that form of government which would be acceptable to its people. No imposition from the British would be acceptable by the people of India.

vi)India would work for peace and human welfare.

Q2.How was the term minority defined by different groups?

Answer: N.G. Ranga, a socialist who had been a leader of the peasant movement, urged that the term minorities be interpreted in economic terms. The real minorities were the poor and the downtrodden. Some considered that the real minorities were the masses of our country who were so depressed and oppressed that they were ot even able to take advantage of the ordinary civil rights. Singh spoke eloquently on the need to protect the tribes, and ensure conditions that could help them come up to the level of the general population.

Q3. What were the arguments in favour of greater power to the provinces?

Answer: K.Santharam, a member from the Madras defended the rights of the states in the Constituent Assembly. He emphasised the need to strengthen the states. He was not in favour of vesting more powers with the Centre. He was of the opinion the Centre would not be able to perform its duties efficiently in case it is over-burdened. The Centre will become automatically strong if all states are made stronger. He advocated that the Centre should be given less powers and states should be given more powers. Proposed allocation of powers between the Centre and States was also a matter of concern for K. Santharam. He felt that such a distribution of power would cripple the states.

Q4.Why did Mahatma Gandhi think Hindustani should be the national language?

Answer :In view of Mahatma Gandhi Hindustani was a language that the common people could easily understand. Hindustani was a blend of Hindi and Urdu. It was also popular among a large section of the people. Moreover, it was a composite language enriched by the interaction of diverse cultures. Words and terms from many different languages got incorporated into this language over the years. It made this language easily understandable by people from various regions.
As per Mahatma Gandhi Hindustani would be the ideal language of communication between the communities. It would help to unify Hindus and Muslims and the people from north and south. Language came to be associated with the politics of religious identities from the end of the 19th century. But Mahatma Gandhi retained his faith in the composite character of Hindustani.

Q5. What historical forces shaped the vision of the Constitution?

Answer: Following are some historical forces which shaped the vision of the Constitution. Certain basic values were accepted by all national leaders as a result of the Nehru Report and the Fundamental Rights Resolution passed the Karachi session of the Indian National Congress. Universal Adult Franchise, Right to Freedom and Equality and Protection of minority rights were these basic values. After the results of 1937 elections, the Congress and other political parties were able to form the governments in the provinces. This experience with legislative and political institutions helped in developing an agreement over institutional design. Many colonial laws were also the sources of the Indian Constitution. Government of India Act, 1935 was a major one. This wray, the Indian Constitution adopted many institutional details and procedures from the colonial laws.

The French Revolution also inspired the makers of the Constitution. The working of the Parliamentary democracy in Britain and the Bill of Rights in the USA also inspired the framers of the Constitution.

Q6.Discuss the different arguments made in favour of protection of the oppressed groups.

Answer:The different arguments made in favour of protection of the oppressed groups were as mentioned below :

i)It was argued that the problem of the “Untouchables” could not be resolved through protection and safeguards alone. Their disabilities were caused by the social norms and the moral values of caste society that had used their services and labour but kept them at a social distance.

ii)J. Nagappa from Madras pointed out that the suffering of the Depressed Classes was i due to their systematic marginalisation and not due to their numerical insignificance. They had
no access to education, or share in the administration.

iii)K.J. Khanderkar from the Central Provinces argued that the Depressed Classes had been suppressed for thousands of years to such an extent that their bodies and minds were not able to march forward.

Q7. What connection did some of the members of the Constituent Assembly make between the political situation of the time and the need for a strong Centre?

Answer: On 15 of August 1947, India became independent from the British rule. It was declared an independent country. But this independence was painful also. India was divided and Pakistan came into existence. This partition was marred with communal violence. So many leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru and Ambedkar favoured a strong Central Government for India. For their view they referred riots and violence that were ripping the nation apart.

It was also felt that a strong centre was the need of the hour. Most of the members of the constituent Assembly also supported this view. Any deviation from this might jeopardize the interests of the nation. Peace, prosperity and political stability was not possible in case of a weak centre. It would fail to coordinate vital matters of common concern.

So Gopalaswami Ayyangar appealed to all the members of the Constituent Assembly that” the Centre should be made as strong as possible.”
It was also felt that only a strong and united centre could plan for the well-being of the country. Balakrishna Sharma also stated the similar view. It was also felt that it would mobilize all the resources , ensure strong defence against any aggressor and establish a proper administration.
Almost all the members of the Constituent Assembly supported a strong central government. They felt that it was necessary to check chaos, communal violence and to usher economic development of the country.

Q8.How did the Constituent Assembly seek to resolve the language controversy ?

Answer :There were two main views about the language of the nation as mentioned below :

i)A plea for Hindi : R.V. Dhulekar, from the United Provinces made a strong plea that Hindi be used as the language of making the constitution. He wanted Hindi to be declared a National Language.

ii)The fear of domination : Shrimati Durgabai from Madras explained her worries. She informed the house that there was strong opposition against Hindi in the South. She stated
that the erosion of inclusive and composite character of Hindustani was bound to create anxieties and fears amongst different language groups.

In view of the above differences, some members appealed for a spirit of accommodation and asked the members not to push the cause of Hindi aggressively. Thus, the language controversy was solved in the following way :

i)Hindi in the Devanagari script would be the official language.

ii)Transition to Hindi would be gradual.

iii)For the first fifteen years, English would continue to be used for all official purposes.

iv)Each province was allowed to choose one of the regional languages for official work within the province.
Thus, referring to Hindi as the official rather that of the national language it was hoped that it would be acceptable to all.


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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 History

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